设为首页收藏本站

[中国食虫植物论坛]感受自然 分享快乐——中国食虫植物论坛

 找回密码
 注册

扫一扫,访问微社区

查看: 7185|回复: 9

[转自花花世界]翻译:好望角茅膏菜

  [复制链接]
发表于 2009-3-28 21:44:50 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
最近一直会去 台湾的论坛 <<花花世界>>

http://flowers.hunternet.com.tw/

去查一些CP的资料
这篇译文实属佳作。
由于宝岛的网站,打开实在太慢,也为了和大家一起分享好文,所以转来了。


感谢译者 saa 洗碗精(花花世界)

基本資料


中文俗名:好望角毛氈苔、南非毛氈苔、南非茅膏菜
英文俗名:Cape sundew ( Eng. );sondouw (Afr.) 
生長期:多年生

界:植物界
門:被子植物門 
綱:雙子葉植物綱 
目:石竹目 
科:茅膏菜科 
屬:茅膏菜屬 
種:南非茅膏菜(Drosera capensis)
命名者:L.(1753) (林奈於1753年命名)

分布圖:
http://plants.usda.gov/maps/large/DR/DRCA14.png

參考網站:
翻譯

來源網站:英文wiki http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drosera_capensis
造訪日期:2008.8.13


[size=150]Drosera capensis 好望角毛氈苔

Drosera capensis, commonly known as the Cape sundew, is a small rosette-forming species of perennial (Various, "The Readers Digest Gardeners Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers", Readers Digest Association, 1992) sundew native to the Cape in South Africa. Because of its size, easy to grow nature, and the copious amounts of seed it produces, it has become one of the most common sundews in cultivation. D. capensis produces strap-like leaves, up to 15 cm long and 1 cm wide, which, as in all sundews, are covered in brightly coloured tentacles which secrete a sticky mucilage that traps insects. When insects are first trapped, the leaves roll lengthwise by thigmotropism, which aids digestion by bringing more digestive glands in contact with the prey item. The plant has a tendency to retain the dead leaves of previous seasons, and the main stem of the plant can become quite long and woody with time.

南非茅膏菜,原產於南非好望角,又稱好望角毛氈苔(學名Drosera capensis 的capensis 即好望角之意)。是一種小而叢生(rosette-forming)的多年生毛氈苔(Various, 1992)。由於體型小又容易栽培,並會產生大量種子,遂成為普遍栽培的毛氈苔之一。它的葉子呈帶狀,長達15cm,寬約1cm,就像其他的毛氈苔一樣,覆有色彩鮮明的觸手,觸手會分泌黏液來捕捉昆蟲。一旦昆蟲落入其中,葉子會由上而下地向獵物捲曲(向觸性),使更多消化腺接觸獵物,協助消化。前一個季節死去的葉子會留在植株上,植物的主幹會因而隨著時間更長且木質化。

wiki參考文獻:Various, "The Readers Digest Gardeners Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers", Readers Digest Association, 1992






In early summer, D. capensis produces small, five-petalled pink flowers at the end of scapes which can be up to 30 cm tall . The plant self-pollinates upon closing and produces copious quantities of very small, spindle-shaped seeds, which are released from the capsules that form when the flower has died. Under horticultural conditions, carnivorous plant enthusiasts find that these seeds have a tendency to find their way into neighbouring plant pots where they germinate readily, giving D. capensis a reputation as a plant that is just a little too easy to grow.

夏初,好望角毛氈苔會產生小朵紫色的五瓣花,花梗可長達30cm高,花瓣閉合時可自花授粉,產生大量細針狀的種子。當花朵枯萎,蒴果中的種子便會四散。栽培者發現好望角毛氈苔的種子往往會自行找到鄰近的盆栽,迅速發芽,好望角毛氈苔因而被視為容易栽培的毛氈苔。

D. capensis has multiple cultivars, including the "Typical", "Narrow", "Alba", and "Red" forms.(Cape Sundews, "The Savage Garden", Peter D'Amato, 1998) The Typical form is noted for wider leaves and the gradual production of a scrambling stem as it grows. The Narrow form differs from the Typical form in that it rarely produces tall stems and has thinner leaves. D. capensis "Alba", while physically similar to the Narrow form, lacks most of the red pigmentation of the Typical or Narrow forms, with pink trichomes and white flowers. There is also the "Red" form that turns blood red in full sunlight, and is also similar physically to the Narrow form. These cultivars are commercially available.

好望角毛氈苔有多個栽培品種,包含"典型的"、"窄葉"、"白化"、"紅色"等形態(Cape Sundews, 1998)。典型的好望角毛氈苔具有較寬的葉,以及逐漸攀升的莖;窄葉種較少產生高莖,且葉子較窄;白化種長得很像窄葉種,但較為缺乏紅色色素,腺毛呈現粉紅色(此處缺乏引用文獻),花為白色;紅色品種的好望角毛氈苔,在全日照下呈現血紅色,外型也與窄葉種相近,這些栽培品種在一般市面上都買得到。

wiki參考文獻:Cape Sundews, "The Savage Garden", Peter D'Amato, 1998

D. capensis can be easily propagated through a variety of methods including seed, leaf cuttings, and root cuttings. It is not easily killed by temperature extremes of a short duration, and is generally a forgiving plant to grow. Additionally, D. capensis does not undergo dormancy like some sundews.

好望角毛氈苔具有多種繁殖方式,如實生(種子栽培)、葉插(剪下葉子鋪在土上)、根插(root cutting,可參考http://www.cea101.com.hk/knowledge.a...533_67&nsid=93)等...過冷、過熱或短暫的乾旱都不容易使它陣亡,屬於耐命的植物。另外,好望角毛氈苔不會冬眠。(但是會夏休@@")


 楼主| 发表于 2009-3-28 21:46:17 | 显示全部楼层
來源網站:ICPS Seed Bank http://www.carnivorousplants.org/see...D_capensis.htm
造訪日期:2008.8.14


[size=150]Growing Drosera capensis 栽培好望角毛氈苔

Drosera capensis is found in marshy areas of the south western Cape region of South Africa. The species has many forms in cultivation ranging from no red pigment to extra red and wide leaf to very narrow leaf. It is considered an easy carnivore to grow. The plant makes an excellent addition to carnivore collection. It tends to become a weed if you allow the seeds to get scattered around.

好望角毛氈苔發現於南非西南部的沼澤濕地,具有許多栽培品種,從缺乏紅色素到鮮紅、寬葉到極窄的窄葉都有,是一種容易栽培的食蟲植物,若是任由種子亂飄,很快就會變得跟雜草一樣。

Drosera capensis isn't very picky about soil. It grows well in pure sphagnum moss as well as the standard 1:1 peat:sand "CP mix". Growing plants in CP mix with live sphagnum on top is very effective as the sphagnum will grow up with the plants keeping the crown near a surface and providing a medium for the adventitious roots that will come out of the side of the stem. The red forms will tend to be redder in peat and under brighter light.

好望角毛氈苔對介質的要求並不嚴苛,它可以在純水苔或混合介質(砂:泥炭土=1:1)中生長良好。若是將活水苔鋪在混合介質上,作為栽培好望角毛氈苔的介質,可以收到更棒的效果!原因是好望角毛氈苔和活水苔都會長高,使得好望角只比活水苔高出一些,而從好望角莖部長出來的不定根,正好可以將包圍在四周的活水苔當成介質生長。紅色的好望角毛氈苔在泥炭土和全日照之下會更加鮮豔。

Sow seeds of Drosera capensis on the surface of your medium of choice. Finely chopped live sphagnum moss over long fibered sphagnum moss or CP mix works very well but the moss can overgrow the young plants. Finely chopped dead sphagnum or sand over CP mix also work well.

將種子灑在選定的介質表面,將切碎的活水苔舖在乾燥水苔或混合介質上效果固然很好,但初期可能會蓋過好望角小苗,使用切碎的乾燥水苔或混合介質也有不錯的效果。

What you do next depends on what works best for you. Everyone has their own preferred routine. I put pots with seeds in plastic zip-lock bags under but not too close to fluorescent lights. You could also use an aquarium in a greenhouse. The purpose of the plastic bag is to maintain very high humidity and to keep out fungus gnats. Fungus gnat larvae will eat the seedlings. A temperature between 20°C to 25°C (70°F to 80°F) works best. The seeds should germinate in a few weeks. When the new plants have a few true leaves, remove the pots from the plastic bags and put them in a bright terrarium or greenhouse. The seedlings may be a little slow growing at first. Have patience.

接下來視個人喜好,筆者是將花盆封入夾鏈袋,放在日光燈下(不可太過接近),也可以使用魚缸。若使用塑膠容器,雖然能維持極高的溼度,但也容易產生蕈蚊,而蕈蚊幼蟲會啃食幼苗 :shock: 。發芽適溫在攝氏20~25度之間(華氏70~80),種子可在數週內發芽,當小好望角長出幾片本葉後,就可以將花盆移出夾鏈袋,放在明亮的生態缸或溫室中,幼苗初期的生長速度會比較慢,要有耐心唷!

個人比較不建議封入夾鏈袋,之前的小毛氈苔就是放夾鏈袋,結果土表產生一層白色的毛...最後是移出來噴水才消失的@@"


Once the plants are large enough you can try feeding them small insects or get some dried blood worms at a pet shop. The dried blood worms can be dipped in water and placed on the dewy leaves--don't feed a plant that isn't dewy. If the food gets moldy, use less next time. A dab of 70% isopropanol (rubbing alcohol) from a small paint brush will kill the fungus.

當植株長到一定程度之後,可以開始嘗試餵食小蟲。或者到寵物店買一盒乾燥赤蟲,將乾燥赤蟲浸在水中然後放到有黏液的葉子上---葉子沒有黏液就不要餵食。如果食物發霉,下次就給少一點。用小水彩筆沾70%異丙醇輕輕擦拭,可以殺死真菌。

Drosera capensis tends to live a few years. Plants can easily be propagated from root and stem cuttings. I usually rip them apart and start over with stem and root cuttings when they start to decline. When your plant blooms, save the seeds to grow more. If you have a lot of seed, send the extra in to the seed bank.

好望角毛氈苔的壽命約數年,很容易藉由根或莖的扦插來繁殖,筆者通常會將它們切開,待植株開始枯萎的時候才開始進行扦插。當好望角毛氈苔開花的時候,你可以儲存種子繼續繁殖,如果你的種子量很大,把多出來的寄到Seed Bank吧!


__________________________________________________________________________
由於找不到該站的圖片版權宣告,不知道可不可以拿來張貼,所以請大家自行前往觀看唷@@"
(右圖一:白化種的花,通常為粉紅色)
(右圖二:這片好望角的葉子捲住一大塊泡過水的乾燥赤蟲,造成葉片灼傷,不過觀察這個過程也是很有趣的一件事)
如果你有看瑪莎‧史都華和Peter D'Amato的萬聖節節目,他將本圖當作背景,很高興她真是個有品味的人~!

(下圖一:好望角窄葉種)
(下圖二:好望角寬葉種)
(下圖三:好望角紅色種)
 楼主| 发表于 2009-3-28 21:49:09 | 显示全部楼层
來源網站:South African National Biodiversity Institute 南非國家生物多樣性中心http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantcd/drosercap.htm
造訪日期:2008.8.14
版權頁面:http://www.plantzafrica.com/copyright.htm


[size=150]Drosera capensis L. 好望角毛氈苔


Description 描述
Drosera capensis is a free-flowering, robust, carnivorous, evergreen perennial, of varying height, but usually around 150 mm. The short, woody stems are rhizomatous below with well-developed roots.

The leaves radiate from the stem and are made up of a petiole and lamina, the petiole being almost the same length as the lamina. The lamina is flattened and bears knob-shaped tentacles, which are stalked, mucilaginous glands covering the leaf surface. Dense fringes of tentacles occur on the margins while fewer and shorter tentacles occur in the centre. The lower lamina surface is smooth and glabrous.

The 15–30, simple, pink-mauve flowers are borne on a single stem and mature in ascending order. Tiny black seeds are formed in the capsules. Flowering time: December to January.

好望角毛氈苔是一種強健、多年生長綠,四季皆可開花的食蟲植物,植株高度各異,平均在150mm左右。木質地下莖呈根莖狀,再下面則是發育良好的根系。

葉從莖環繞長出,分為葉柄和葉片,兩者長度相當,葉片扁平並具有觸手。觸手為球狀突起,具有柄,以及分泌黏液的腺體(觸手──●),幾乎蓋住整個葉面。位於葉片邊緣的觸手相當濃密,中間則量較少且短,葉背光滑無毛。

The 15–30(...?),樸素的粉紅色花朵從單一花梗上長出來,由下而上逐漸成熟,成功授粉後會產生碩果,裡面有細小黑色的種子,花期:12~1月。(不是四季開花嗎...)


【一些名詞】
  • 季節開花型 season-flowering type
  • 四季開花型 free-flowering type
  • 地下部塊莖狀 tuberous
  • 地下部根莖狀 rhizomatous


(閃爍著黏液的葉片,吸引昆蟲步入死亡)
  


Conservation status 保育地位 
Not threatened.

無威脅(NT)


Distribution and habitat 分布與棲地
Drosera capensis occurs naturally in the southwestern Cape and can be found in marshes, along streams, permanent seeps or damp areas of fynbos.

好望角毛氈苔的原生棲地位於西南部岬角,可以在沼澤地、沿著河岸、湧泉處、fynbos(位於南非,世界6大植物王國之一)的溼地發現它們的蹤跡。


Derivation of name and historical aspects 命名史
The family Droseraceae was classified by Linnaeus in 1753, and consists of ± 126 species of which 18 occur in South Africa . Drosera gets its name from the Greek word, drosos , meaning dew. Some of the other commonly known species within this family are D. cistiflora, with one of the largest flowers, D. glabripes with its trailing woody stems and D. regia the king drosera.

林奈於1753年分類出茅膏菜科(Droseraceae),由 ±126 個種類組成,其中有18種來自南非。茅膏菜屬-Drosera,源於希臘文的drosos,也就是露水的意思。茅膏菜科常見的成員有D. cistiflora,最大的花;D. glabripes,具有蔓生的木質莖(trailing plant);D. regia,皇后毛(king drosera,網路上查卻翻成"皇后" O_O)。

【一些名詞】
  • climbing plant、climber、trailing plant:具長而柔軟的莖,無法支撐植物本身,需藉外在機械力支持使其向上生長,否則在地上蔓延的植物。



Ecology 生態
Flowers are open very briefly for a few hours with good sunlight. The flowers can be pollinated by insects, but are usually self-pollinated. When the seeds are ripe, their capsules open to release the fine, light-weight seeds which fall out and are dispersed near the parent plants.

Probably the most interesting characteristic of this plant is its ability to digest the nutrients, especially the nitrogen it requires from insects caught in its stalked tentacles. The tentacles are sensitive and mobile. The stalks end in a bulbous head in which the glandular cells occur. These glands secret a glistening, sticky, clear fluid used to trap and retain prey. There is speculation that the fluid is slightly sweetly scented to attract insects. The fluid contains a weak acid and enzymes that digest the soft parts of its prey. The sensitive tentacles are able to detect caught prey and produce more dew to entrap their victim. Neighbouring tentacles then mobilize and slowly lean over to engulf the hapless victim.

The leaf itself may also fold over to enclose or suffocate larger prey and allow for better absorption.

As sensitive as these tentacles are, they are able to distinguish between a meal and other stimuli, for example, the leaf and tentacles do not respond to water droplets. 

好望角毛氈苔的開花時間非常短暫,在光照良好的環境下約數小時,可由昆蟲授粉,但通常為自花授粉。當種子成熟,蒴果會裂開,釋放出幾乎沒有重量的細小種子,落在親本四周。

好望角毛氈苔最有趣的特徵應該就是消化養份的能力,尤其需要由獵物獲得N(氮元素),好望角的觸手非常靈敏,並且具有移動性。觸手末端的球狀部份具有腺細胞,腺細胞會產生晶瑩剔透的黏液,用以吸引、捕捉獵物。根據推測,黏液具有淡淡的香氣以吸引昆蟲,並具有弱酸及酵素分解獵物柔軟的部份。靈敏的觸手可以偵測是否抓到獵物,並分泌更多黏液讓獵物無法逃脫,而附近的觸手則靠過來,緩緩傾斜,將犧牲者捲入。

除了觸手捲起,葉片本身也會摺疊,使較大的獵物無法逃脫甚至窒息,並有助於吸收。

靈敏的觸手還可以分辨大餐和其他刺激的差異,例如葉片和觸手並不會捕捉掉到上面的水滴。


 


Uses and cultural aspects 用途
The Cape sundew is fast growing and single plants can live for many years with young suckers forming at the base. It is a free-flowering and fascinating house plant. It can also be grown outdoors in South Africa in a bog garden or as a semi-submerged pond plant. 

Drosera has also been recorded for use against various ailments. Extracts of the leaves were used externally for warts, corns and sunburn. Disorders such as tuberculosis, asthma, coughs, eye and ear infection, liver pain, morning sickness, stomach conditions, syphilis, toothache and intestinal problems were treated internally with teas or extracts made from the leaves. The tea was also used as a tranquilizer and some believe that it has aphrodisiac properties. Anti-spasmodic agents have been found by scientists in some Drosera species.


好望角毛氈苔生長快速且可以存活數年,從基部持續長出新的嫩芽,四季開花,是很迷人的居家植物。好望角也可以栽培在室外,例如南非的沼澤庭園,或在池塘裡用半淹水的方式栽培。

茅膏菜屬具有許多用在醫療上的紀錄
(民俗療法@@"),如萃取葉子的菁華治療疣、雞眼、曬傷;將葉片泡茶或榨汁治療一些失調狀況(肺結核、氣喘、咳嗽、眼、耳感染、肝痛、孕婦晨吐、消化問題、梅毒、牙痛、腸胃問題),有的人將茅膏菜茶當成鎮定劑,也有些人認為可以刺激性慾。另外有專家從一些種類的茅膏菜中找到抑制痙攣的成分。



 楼主| 发表于 2009-3-28 21:50:57 | 显示全部楼层
Growing Drosera capensis 栽培好望角毛氈苔
Drosera capensis is one of the hardiest carnivorous plants to grow. It tolerates a variety of soils which low in nutrients. General growth media, 1 part sand or silica grit: 1 peat or sphagnum moss in 10–15 cm pots are ideal. Place the potted plants in a 1–3 cm saucer filled with fresh water to remain moist at all times. Place in a northern or eastern direction for best sunlight if growing indoors. Grow in full sun to semi-shade outdoors. 

The Cape sundew is easily propagated by seed or vegetative means. Prepare a 9 cm pot with growth media, water well. Sow fresh seeds on the surface in moist growth media. Do not cover with soil.

Partially cover healthy living root or leaf cuttings with growth media. Place in a well-lit area but not in direct sunlight. Cover pots with plastic to retain humidity. Once young leaves develop, pierce the plastic to allow for acclimatization and hardening off. 

Acidic or epiphytic foliar feed may be used at ¼ recommended strength once a month. 

Ironically, the carnivorous plants are attacked by insect pests. Aphids, mealy bug and thrips cause deformity in new growth. Treat with a diluted pesticide or remove pests by hand. Never use a soap-based insecticide. Drying out can cause drooping and the decrease in mucilage production. Watering and keeping the plant moist will revive them. Dew production may stop after transplanting or if the leaf comes into contact with inquisitive hands. New foliage will, however, grow and continue to produce dew. Mature plants die off from time to time, but usually young shoots develop off their rhizomatous stems, so wait a few weeks before you throw them out! 

好望角毛氈苔是難種的毛之一(不對吧...前後矛盾...囧),它對於不含肥的介質的忍受度很高。一般用的介質為砂(或硅土):泥炭土(或水苔)=1:1,栽培於10~15cm花盆中(約4~5吋盆),將花盆腰水1~3cm以維持溼度,如果是室內栽培,朝北或南的光線較佳,室外栽培需要半遮蔭。

好望角毛氈苔很容易以種子或其他方法繁殖。準備一個9cm盆(3吋盆),加入溼潤的介質,將新鮮種子灑在上面,不要覆土!

將切下的枝條(根或莖)一部分埋入介質,放置在光線充足的環境,但不可讓太陽直射。以塑膠袋罩住花盆保持溼度,長出新葉後,將塑膠袋戳洞,鍛鍊植株,讓它慢慢適應外界環境。

一個月施一次肥,稀釋到推薦濃度的1/4。
(ex:一般植物=1g肥料粉+[size=150]1000g水;食蟲植物=1g肥料粉+[size=150]4
000g水,噴灑於葉片上,不是土裡)


諷刺的是,食蟲植物也會遭受蟲害!蚜蟲、粉介殼蟲、牧草蟲造成新芽畸形,你可以用稀釋的殺蟲劑或手動移除這些害蟲,但千萬不要用含皂基的殺蟲劑。另外乾燥會造成植株下垂和黏液減少,此時需澆水並且保溼,幫助植株恢復生長。移殖或用手摸葉片會造成黏液停止分泌,但新葉會繼續分泌黏液。成熟的好望角毛氈苔有時會相繼死去,但新的嫩芽又會從地下莖長出來,所以不要急著丟掉它們,稍待幾週吧!

【一些片語】
有時、不時-from time to time



References and further reading 參考文獻及延伸閱讀
  • D'Amato, P. 1998. The Savage Garden: Cultivating Carnivorous Plants. Ten Speed Press, California.
  • Gibson, R. 1993. Cape sundew: Drosera capensis : know it and grow it. Veld & Flora 79: 54, 55.
  • Manneveldt, G.W. 1998. Sundews. Veld & Flora 84: 10, 11.
  • Voigt, W. 2003. Plants with appetite. Veld & Flora 89: 18–20.


以上内容所有权归 saa 洗碗精(花花世界) 所有
发表于 2009-3-28 22:14:01 | 显示全部楼层
好望角在夏季高溫期會生長緩慢或休眠,南方種植在夏季有可能一睡不醒。@@monkey (74)@@
发表于 2009-5-4 13:35:23 | 显示全部楼层
好文 学习了~
发表于 2009-7-12 08:46:19 | 显示全部楼层
很好,很详细!不怕冷,但会热死~囧!
发表于 2010-11-2 00:59:14 | 显示全部楼层
在最多蟲的夏天夏眠,真的囧囧囧
发表于 2010-11-5 11:17:00 | 显示全部楼层
学习了
不知道从播种到成株要多久啊?
发表于 2012-10-1 22:42:29 | 显示全部楼层
好帖,受教了,好好收藏{:1_239:}
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

QQ|小黑屋|Archiver|手机版|[中国食虫植物网] ( 浙ICP备14030868号  

水着水着 通販ビキニ水着 激安水着 人気ビキニ 通販水着 安い水着 ワンピース子供 水着水着 メンズメンズ 水着

GMT+8, 2018-9-20 16:30 , Processed in 0.270336 second(s), 23 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.|Style by Coxxs

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表